Suicide affects people of all ages, socioeconomic backgrounds, professions, religious backgrounds, and ethnicities. Every year in the UK, there are three times as many deaths by suicide than there are deaths in traffic accidents. In the Republic of Ireland, twice as many deaths occur by suicide than deaths on the roads.
- Unlike people, suicide doesn’t discriminate. Suicide affects people of all ages, socioeconomic backgrounds, professions, religious backgrounds, and ethnicities.
- It’s estimated that roughly 20% of all people around the world have considered ending their own life at some point.
- Every year in the UK, there are three times as many deaths by suicide than there are deaths in traffic accidents. In the Republic of Ireland (ROI), twice as many deaths occur by suicide than deaths on the roads.
- A total of 6,524 deaths by suicide occurred in England, Scotland, and Wales in 2019:
- One suicide every 90 minutes
- An average of 18 suicides per day
- Whilst Northern Ireland has not published figures for 2019 at the time of this writing, there were 307 suicides in the nation in 2018.
- A total of 437 deaths by suicide occurred in ROI in 2019:
- An average of one suicide every day
- For every suicide that occurs, an estimated additional 20 people attempt to take their own lives. However, this number is likely to be higher as many people who attempt suicide do not seek help or tell anyone. In the UK and ROI, this equates to (at minimum) 398 attempts per day or 145,360 attempts every year.
- UK: 374 attempts per day, or 136,620 every year
- ROI: 20 attempts per day, or 8,740 every year
- 135 people are affected by every suicide (family, friends, colleagues, emergency services, employers, other community members). In the UK and ROI, this equates to 2,688 people affected by suicide every day or 981,180 people affected every year.
- UK: 2,295 people affected by suicide every day or 922,185 every year
- ROI: 135 people affected by suicide every day or 58,995 every year.
- The rate of suicide differs between the UK’s nations and ROI:
- Northern Ireland: 18.6 deaths by suicide per 100,000 people
- Scotland: 16.6 deaths by suicide per 100,000 people
- Wales: 12.8 deaths by suicide per 100,000 people
- England: 11.0 deaths by suicide per 100,000 people
- Republic of Ireland: 8.5 deaths by suicide per 100,000 people.
- In the UK 75% of suicides occur amongst males, and in ROI, 80% of suicides occur amongst males.
- Those considered at higher risk of dying by suicide in the UK are men aged as follows:
- England: men aged 45 to 49 years old
- Wales: men aged 40 to 44 years old
- Scotland: men aged 35 to 44 years old
- Northern Ireland: men aged 25 to 29 years old.
- Those considered to be at higher risk of dying by suicide in ROI are men aged 55 to 64.
Suicide rates by occupation
Suicide rates across different occupations has been extensively studied in the UK and internationally. Attempting to explain suicide solely by occupation isn’t possible because there are many factors to consider. However, there a few, granted very broad, reasons why a particular occupation may carry a higher-than-average risk of suicide.
1. Factors such as low pay and low job security
Results from 34 international research projects on suicide by occupation found that people in low-pay jobs and those with less job security and little control over their work patterns were more likely to die by suicide than those in highly paid roles who had a high degree of control over their work. However, it’s important that we don’t generalise. It might be that it’s less about one’s particular occupation that puts them at a higher-than-average risk than it is about the features of their job and the resulting socioeconomic impact.
While there is no definitive breakdown for the rates of suicide in the UK or Irish retail sector specifically, we do know that rates amongst people working in its associated industries such as logistics and warehousing are higher than those working in customer-facing roles. Again, we need to be careful not to draw conclusions about risks amongst particular groups. There are many other psychological, social and individual factors to consider.
2. Having access to a method of suicide at work may increase risk
Individuals such as doctors, dentists, nurses, veterinarians and agricultural workers are known to be at an increased risk of suicide as are people working in the construction sector. This may in part be due to the fact that people working in these professions have easier access to means than some other people. However, it’s important to note that simply having access to means is never the sole reason someone takes their life and there are always other factors involved.
3. Exposure to trauma in the course of one’s work
Professions which encounter high rates of trauma include the armed forces, police, medical and care staff, social workers and veterinarians. Retail also faces exposure to traumatic events in the workplace such as customer assaults, workplace accidents and armed robbery. Exposure to trauma does not on its own cause someone to take their own life, but repeated exposure without the appropriate support by employers and healthcare professionals can result in an individual finding day to day life extremely challenging.
Next article: Why people die by suicide